Shotokan Karate Terminology

Counting
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Ichi
Ni
San
Shi
Go
Roku
Shichi
Hachi
Ku
Ju

Dachi

Stance

Zenkutsu-dachi

Front stance

Kiba-dachi

Horse riding stance

Kokustu-dachi

Back stance

Shizen-dachi

Natural stance

Heiko-dachi

Feet shoulder width and straight

Hachiji-dachi

Feet shoulder width and pointed out

Uchu Hachiji-dachi

Feet shoulder width and pointed in

Musubi-dachi

Heels together, each foot turned out at 45 degrees

Heisoku-dachi

Feet and toes together

Teiji-dachi

T-angled stance

Renoji-dachi

L-angled stance

Hangetsu-dachi

Half-moon stance

Kosa-dachi

Crossed-feet stance

Neko-Ashi-dachi

Cats foot stance


Uke Waza

Blocking Techniques

Gedan-barai

Downward block

Age-uke

Rising block

Soto Ude-uke

Outside forearm block

Uchi Ude-uke

Inside forearm block

Shuto-uke

Knife hand block

Juji-uke/Kosu-uke

X-block

Haishu-uke

Backhand block

Teisho-uke

Palm block

Kakiwaki-uke

Inside wedge hand block

Morote-uke

Reinforced forearm block

Nagashi-uke

Sweeping block

Tate Shuto-uke

Vertical knife hand block (arm straight)


Tsuki Waza

Punching Techniques

Choku-tsuki

Front punch

Oi-tsuki

Lunge punch

Gyaku-tsuki

Reverse punch

Kizami-tsuki

Leading hand jab

Sanbon-tsuki

Three punch combination

Age-tsuki

Rising punch

Ura-tsuki

Half punch used at close range

Kage-tsuki

Hook punch

Mawashi-tsuki

Round house punch

Morote-tsuki

Double punch

Yama-tsuki

Over the mountain double punch

Tate-tsuki

Vertical punch


Uchi Waza

Striking Techniques

Age-Empi Uchi or Tate Empi Uchi

Upward elbow strike

Haishu Uchi

Back hand strike - hand and fingers are straight

Haito Uchi

Ridge-hand strike

Hiji-Ate

Elbow strike, also called Empi Uchi

Hiji Atemi or Hiji Ate

Elbow strikes

Ippon Nukite

One finger strike

Ippon Tsuki or Ippon Nukite

One finger thrust

Keito Uchi

Chicken head strike

Kentsui Uchi (Or Tettsui Uchi)

Hammer fist strike

Kumade Uchi

Bear hand strike. Kumade also means rake or fork

Nihon Nukite

Two finger strike

Nihon Tsuki or Nihon Nukite

Two finger thrust

Nukite

Spear hand

Shihon Nukite

Four finger strike

Shuto Uchi

Knife hand strike

Tate Empi Uchi

Upward elbow strike

Teisho Uchi

Palm heel strike

Tettsui Uchi

Bottom fist strike. Also called kentsui

Uraken Uchi

Back fist strike

Ushiro Mawashi Empi Uchi

Back roundhouse elbow strike

Yoko Empi Uchi

Side Elbow Strike


Geri Waza

Kicking Techniques

Mae-geri

Front Kick

Mae-geri Keage

Front Snap Kick

Mawashi-geri

Roundhouse Kick

Yoko-geri Keage

Side Snap Kick

Yoko-geri Kekomi

Side Thrust Kick

Ushiro-geri

Back Thrust Kick

Gyaku Mawashi-geri

Reverse Round House Kick

Fumikomi-geri

Downward Thrust Kick

Mikasuki-geri

Cresent Kick

Ashi-barai

Foot or Leg Sweep

Hiza-geri

Knee Kick

Namimae-ashi

Returning Wave Kick

Kakato-geri

Axe Kick


15 Basic Kata of Shotokan Karate

Name of Kata

Meaning of Name

Moves

Main Points to be Learned

Heian Shodan

Peaceful Mind

21

Front stance, back stance, stepping patterns, lunge punch

Heian Nidan

Peaceful Mind

26

Front kick, side kick while changing directions

Heian Sandan

Peaceful Mind

20

Body connections in forearm blocking, back-fist strike

Heian Yondan

Peaceful Mind

27

Balance and variation in techniques

Heian Godan

Peaceful Mind

23

Balance and jumping

Tekki Shodan

Horse Riding

29

Straddle-leg stance, hip vibration

Tekki Nidan

Horse Riding

24

Grasping and hooking blocks

Tekki Sandan

Horse Riding

36

Continuous middle-level blocking

Bassai-Dai

To Penetrate a Fortress

42

Changing disadvantage into advantage by use of switching blocks and differing degrees of power

Kanku-Dai

Looking at Sky

65

Variation in fast and slow techniques, jumping

Jion

Temple of Jion

47

Turning, shifting, variations in stepping patterns

Jutte

Ten Hands

24

Powerful hip action, use of the staff

Empi

Flying Swallow

37

Fast slow movements, high and low body positions, reversal of body positions

Hangetsu

Crescent or Half Moon

41

Inside tension stance; coordination of breathing with stepping, blocking and punching, circular arm and leg movement

Gankaku

Crane on a Rock

42

Balancing on one leg, side kick, back fist strike

Other, more advanced kata, which are frequently practiced are Sochin (Immovable), Chinte(Small Hands), Nijushiho(24 directions), Bassai-Sho(The Lesser Bassai), Kanku-Sho(The Lesser Kanku), Gojushiho-Dai(The Greater 54 Directions), Gojushiho-Sho(The Lesser 54 Directions) and Unsu(Hands in the Clouds).


Miscellaneous Terminology

Jodan

Face level

Chudan

Stomach level

Gedan

Lower level

Sensei

Teacher

Sempai

Senior student

Ken

Fist

Seiken

Fore fist

Ippon-ken

One knuckle fist

Nakadaka-ken

Middle knuckle fist

Nukite

Spear hand

Ippon-nukite

One finger spear hand

Dojo

Training hall

Shihai

Tournament

Makiwara

Punching board

Hajimae

Begin

Yamae

Finish

Enorae

Relax

Mokuso

Meditation

Seiza

Formal kneeling position

Gi

Uniform

Obi

Belt

Kyu

Junior rank, colored belt

Dan

Senior rank, black belt

Shihan

Master


Kumite

Sparring

Sanbon Kumite

Three step basic sparring

Gohon Kumite

Five step basic sparring

Kihon Ippon Kumite

One step basic sparring

Jiyu Ippon Kumite

One step semi free sparring

Jiyu Kumite

Free sparring


Parts of the Body

Ago

Jaw or chin

Akiresu-Ken

Achilles tendon

Ashi

Foot or leg

Ashikubi

Ankle

Ashi Ura

Sole of foot

Ashi Yubi

Toes

Ashizoko

Bottom foot. You use this to sweep your opponents foot during ashi barai

Do

Torso or trunk of body

Dokko

The mastoids

Empi

Elbow (also called hiji)

Fukuto

The outside of the lower part of the thigh

Fushi

Joint, knuckle

Gai Wan

Outer arm

Gan

Eye. You may also see this as gansei

Ganmen Head and face area
Ha Tooth
Hada Skin
Haguki Gums
Hai Lung
Haibu The back area used as the target area in karate
Haimen Back or rear side
Haisoku Instep of the foot. The area at the base of the shin bone and the top of the foot
Hai-Wan Back arm
Hana Nose
Hara Abdomen, means the same as tandan
Hidari Left (left side)
Hifu Skin
Hiji Elbow, also known as empi. Hiji is the older version. Empi is now the most commonly used. You may also see it spelt as enpi
Hijikansetsu Elbow joint
Hira-Kote Level forearm. Centre of the outer and inner forearms
Hitai Brow/forehead
Hitosashi Forefinger knuckle
Hiza Knee or lap
Hizagashira Knee cap
Hizakansetsu Knee joint
Jinzo Kidney
Kafukubu Abdomen
Kahanshin Lower half of the body
Kakato Heel (of the foot)
Kami Hair. Kami dori/tsukami is hair grab, from the kata empi. Also see ke
Kansetsu Joint
Kanzo Liver. (may also sometimes see it as kimo)
Karada Body, physique
Kasumi Temple on the side of the head. Also see komikami
Kata Shoulder
Ke Hair
Keibu Neck area. Used as a target in sports karate
Keichu Nape of the neck
Ketto Blood
Kinniku Muscles
Kinteki Testicles
Koken Wrist joint, or bent wrist. It translates as 'arc fist'
Komekami The temple area of the head. Also see kasumi
Koshi The ball of the foot, or the hip/waist
Kote (1) Wrist, another translation for wrist. Te is on the end to signify that it is of the hand. Ko means arc
Kote (2) Back hand
Kote (3) Forearm. In some cases you will see kote as forearm as in 'omote-kote' or 'outer forearm'
Kubi Neck
Kuchi Mouth
Kusagakure The outside edge of the top of the foot
Kyobu Chest area
Mata Top of the thigh
Matsukaze The side of the neck
Me Eye
Men Face
Migi Right (right side)
Mikazuki The lower ridge of the lower jaw, the mandible base
Mimi Ear or ears
Momo Thigh
Mune Chest
Myaku Pulse
Myojo Area about one inch below the navel
Nai Wan Inner arm
Nodo Throat
Omote-Kote Front forearm or inner forearm. The thumb edge side that when standing naturally faces to the front
Oyayubi Thumb or big toe
Rokkotsu Rib
Sakotsu Collar bone
Sebone Backbone, spine
Senaka The back
Seoi Shoulder. In karate we use 'kata' to say shoulder but you may see seoi nage for shoulder throw
Shin Heart
Shintai Body, another expression for body
Shinzo Heart
Shiri Buttocks
Shita Tongue
Sho Palm, as in hand
Shofu Side of neck
Shuwan Palm side of forearm. This is also seen as showan
Soda The area between the shoulder blades
Sokko Top of the foot
Sokutei Sole of foot
Sokuto Edge of foot. The striking area in a side thrust kick
Suigetsu Solar-plexus
Sune Shin
Tai Body, as in tai-sabaki tai = body, sabaki = shifting or movement
Taikaku Build or physique
Tanden Basically your centre of gravity, naval area. Also see hara
Te Hand
Tendo The crown of your head
Tento The fontanelle or the space between the crown of the head and the forehead
Tomoe Stomach
Tsumasaki Tips of the toes
Tsume Nail, of the fingers or toes. Used to effect in the kata bassai sho, to cut across the opponents eyeballs
Ude Forearm
Udekansetsu Arm joint
Ura-Kote Reverse or rear forearm. The little finger side
Ushiro Back or rear
Uto The point at the base of the nose between the eyes
Wakibara Side of the chest
Wan Arm
Wanshun Top of outside edge of upper arm
Yako The inside of the upper thigh
Yobo Face
Yoko Side or lateral
Yubi Finger
Yubi No Kansetsu Knuckle
Yubisaki Fingertip
Zenshin Whole (entire) body
Zenwan Forearm
Zuno Head or brains